Making the Forest Sector Transparent is a four year project managed by Global Witness that supports civil society groups in forest-rich countries to engage with policy makers and advocate for accountable forest sector governance. The combined area infested by I. cylindrica in Alabama, Florida and Mississippi, USA is estimated to be at least 100,000 hectares (Dickens, 1974; Schmitz and Brown, 1994), and according to Kaczor (2003), citing other authors, it is estimated that between 200,000 and 400,000 hectares in Florida alone are infested by I. cylindrica. For communities to extract timber, they must obtain an Annual Exploitation Certificate (AEC) from the Ministry of Forests (MINFOF). The flowers and roots of I. cylindrica have antibacterial, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic properties. Shukla U, 1996. Eragrostis betsileensis and Tristachya betsileensis are the two species known to be local endemics. Much effort has been given to improving the activity of glyphosate with formulation adjuvants (Townson, 1991). The regenerative capacity of I. cylindrica rhizomes is affected by their age (Ayeni and Duke, 1985); older rhizomes regenerate better than those that are young and contain relatively few nutrients. Improving local technologies to manage speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) in southern Benin. Tigerpaper, 26(2):25-27; 2 ref. Volume 3 Part 2. List of types of grass. According to Lippincott (1997), the presence of I. cylindrica in a sandhill ecosystem can predispose it to intense, widespread and frequent fires that can seriously damage or kill most fire-intolerant species. Bimal Misri, Sindhu Sareen, 2004. Saccharum germplasm collection in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands, India. It ensures the implementation of international conventions and forest development initiatives in Central Africa. Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). According to Dickens and Buchanan (1971), the eradication of I. cylindrica in the south-eastern USA was recommended as early as 1948. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service. The lateral buds can remain dormant for long periods and give I. cylindrica its perennating habit. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society, 49:156. Rukshana Bajwa, Saima Riaz, Khan SM, 2002. Weed Technology, 19(3):568-574. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. Wallingford, UK: CABI. The final exploitation contract takes the form of a forest concession granted by decree of the Prime Minister. Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver RL, 1987. Here’s some particulars about the nine species, along with their pictures. MINFOF is responsible for the management and monitoring of Permanent Forest Estates (which includes protected areas, communal and national forests) and for the development, implementation and evaluation of government policy on forest and wildlife. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. Dickens R, Buchanan GA, 1975. 12. Share All sharing options for: Grass Species. In: Flora of China Checklist, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. I. cylindrica is a serious weed not only in crops but also in natural areas, causing serious economic and environmental damage. Results of preliminary survey of Bengal floricans Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal, 1982. Gilliland HB, 1971. As it can alter the fire regime, I. cylindrica has the potential to form grasslands that are devoid of trees and prone to fires. Report of Research Project WOTRO W86-34. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. Today, northern white rhinos are possibly extinct in the wild. In one investigation (Eussen, 1981) it was shown that after 6 months’ growth, I. cylindrica had more rhizomes than shoots at all light intensities (20-100% intensity) but, in another (Soerjani, 1970), I. cylindrica tended to have more shoots (11.5 t/ha) than rhizomes (7.0 t/ha). There is scope for using low volume applications of <50 l/ha with very-low-volume and spinning-disc sprayers and also for the use of weed wipers. Effect of nicosulfuron dosages and timing on the postemergence control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in corn. McDonald SK, Shilling DG, Okoli CAN, Bewick TA, Gordon D, Hall D, Smith R, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India., Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. The bud from a single rhizome node can give rise to 350 shoots in 6 weeks, which can cover up to 4 m² in 11 weeks (Eussen, 1980). Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H. BIOTROP Bulletin No. Bogor, Indonesia: BIOTROP. Article 11 states that EIAs must include stakeholder involvement through consultations and public hearings. Biocontrol News and Information, 8(1):7-30. Ordinance No 99/001 of August 31, 1999 This Ordinance supplements certain provisions of the Law No. World Wide Web page at http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/. USDA-ARS, 2004. In: Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). Cameroon passed its first forestry law in 1994, and has made a vested effort to keep implementation and enforcement actions under one ministry - the Ministry of Forests and Fauna (MINFOF). Rope-wick applications was slightly less effective, but was the least expensive and most suitable for farmers without access to protective clothing. europea Andersson (1855), Imperata arundinacea var. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/99-jan-feb.htm. Weed flora distribution in sugar cane Saccharum officinarum L. fields at Esna, Quena. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):12-25. It is up to each CITES Party to draft its own domestic legislation in order to comply with its CITES obligations. See current list of member countries here. Agroforestry innovations for Imperata grassland rehabilitation: papers from a workshop held in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January 23 to 27, 1995. In addition, the Decree establishes logging transportation requirements. Creeping Bristle Grass. There are two modes of introductions in the Mbô Floodplain: accidental (Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obscura, andOreochromis niloticus) and transfer (Tilapia cameronensis). To export timber, parties are required to pay the free on board (FOB) value. Central Africa Forest Commission (COMIFAC). Ayeni AO, Duke WB, 1985. Langeland KA, Burks KC, 1998. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. Agronomy Journal. Fungal pathogens of some subtropical and tropical weeds and the possibilities for biological control. In: Botanica Macaronesica. Grasses of Malaya. I. cylindrica is not capable of self-pollination (Gabel, 1982) and produces viable seeds only through cross-pollination (McDonald et al., 1996). Van Loan AN, Meeker JR, Minno MC, 2002. This is a list of taxa included on Appendix I, II and III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in accordance with the provisions of Articles XV and XVI of the CITES. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. The law also fixes the percentage paid to the local community living around the State forest for development purposes. For larger areas of land, soil cultivation by tractors is more appropriate, best done during the dry season when most of the plant’s biomass is in the rhizomes and when desiccation is most effective. Two main measures were introduced as part of this reform. Eussen JHH, 1978. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). A. et C. de Candolle. Agronomy Journal, 41:270. A typical high-volume application involves spraying glyphosate in 250-800 l/ha of water using knapsack or tractor-mounted equipment. Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Anon, 1987. The spread of I. cylindrica in the USA has been limited to south-eastern parts and this is attributed to temperature. The species name festuciformis means 'like' (formis) a 'grass' (Festuca is a grass genus). Scholz S, Reyes-Betancort J A, Wildpret de la Torre W, 2006. The present handbook is a pictorial resource guide to the identification of different … (Endemic to Cameroon. Kaczor B, 2003. It scored very highly in a pest risk analysis for the Pacific, and I. cylindrica is an invasive species in Micronesia where it has been recommended for eradication (PIER, 2008). Sar SA, Wavi BM, Ghodake RD, 1997. Inskipp C, Inskipp T, 1983. 2005/099 of 2005, Articles 53-57 sets out the organization of the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife. It occupies a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas. Heppner JB, 2000. Foreign trade is distorted by state regulation, special rules, and tariff barriers. major. Gilliland H B, 1971. Numata M, Yoshizawa N, 1975. The ability of I. cylindrica to effectively compete for water and nutrients, spread and persist through the production of seeds and rhizomes that can survive a wide range of environmental conditions, and its allelopathic effects and pyrogenic nature, allow it to exclude native plant species and other desirable plants and dominate large areas of land. indica Andersson (1855), Imperata arundinacea var. An illustrated systematic account of the Malayan flora, including commonly cultivated plants. Masuzawa T, Suwa H, Nakasuji F, 1983. I. cylindrica is capable of capturing material flowing from higher areas in the landscape through erosion, hence, it is possible that it can cause the build-up of vesicular arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal inoculum. Bhowmik MK, Chakraborty T, Raha AK, 1999. See CBD website for more information on the CBD application in Cameroon. CARPE Website, WWF Central Africa Regional Program Office (CARPO). The habitat and food habits of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in protected areas of sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Genetic variation in the intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Of the four main products (dalapon, glyphosate, glufosinate and imazapyr) used in recent years, glyphosate has become the market leader. Cogongrass in Mobile County, Alabama. Weed Science Society Abstract 160. The propagation and growth of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L. 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