What affects temperature and why is Jakarta so hot and wet? Why are people willing to travel further to a national stadium or sports centre than to a gym? All secondary material on this site is clearly referenced and may be subject to copyright restrictions by the original authors. London’s Olympic stadium in 2012 involved the complete redesign of Stratford Railway Station as a way to ensure that people could arrive at the Games from much further away. All rights reserved. Fluvial processes: weathering and mass movement, Fluvial processes: transportation and depositon, Physical and human factors affecting global population distribution, Forced migration and internal displacement, Global climate vulnerability and resilience, Climate Change and the Hydrosphere, Atmosphere and Biosphere, Impacts of climate change on people and places, Disparities in exposure to climate change risk and vulnerability, Government-led adaptation and mitigation strategies, Global patterns and trends in the availability and consumption of water, Global patterns and trends in the availability and consumption of land/food, Global patterns and trends in the availability and consumption of energy, Agricultural activities and water quality, Internationally shared water and conflict, Water management: participation of local communities, Water management: Integrated Drainage Basin Management (IDBM), Factors affecting growth of tourism hotspots, Factors affecting a national sports league, Tourism as a national development strategy, Political and cultural influences on sport, Mock examination revision and preparation. Some students decided to investigate the sphere of influence of two shopping areas, Spandau Arcaden and Pichelsdorfer Strasse, near where they lived. . GEOGRAPHY 0460/43 Paper 4 Alternative to Coursework May/June 2016 1 hour 30 minutes Candidates answer on the Question Paper. sphere of influence definition: 1. an area in which the power or interests of a country or an organization are of greatest…. Hierarchies can also be organised according to other factors such as: The theory of ‘sphere of influence’ in the geographical study of sport is borrowed from the study of retail environments. A threshold population is defined to be "the minimum number of people required to support a particular good, shop or office".2 There are many factors that may influence the service's success or failure and one of those factors is its sphere of influence, which is a component of the Urban Environments topic of IB Geography. The media condemns Russian President Vladimir Putin as a human rights violator who did not return an American defector. Chapter 3 : Community Facilities. Settlement hierarchy is usually measured by three variables: When looking at the distribution, it might be easiest to divide the city into urban zones, like in the Burgess Model. As the table shows, the accessibility of facilities is greater within central areas than in rural areas. Why are they important? The Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union are not re-emerging, but a more traditional, soft sphere of influence based on historical Russian geography and empire building is. A sphere of influence is the region over which a group or institution has power, which is separate from whoever is traditionally in control. It is a useful concept in terms of tensions between superpowers and emerging powers over territory and physical resources. The existence of good transport links can significantly extend the sphere of influence of a tourist or sports facility. City and special district spheres of influence define the probable physical boundaries and service area of a local agency, as determined by the … Badminton, keep fit, yoga, football, cricket, As above plus tennis, netball, gym, hockey, Golf courses, skateboard parks, bowling green, As above plus bowling, golf, skateboarding, judo, karate, As above plus home grounds of sports clubs (football, rugby, hockey, athletics grounds), National sports centre for selected sports. (Sheffield City Council, 2011). The diagram below shows how there are few large settlements but many smaller settlements: Sports and tourist facilities can also be placed in a hierarchy. any area in which one nation wields dominant power over another or others. Mayhew, S., 2015. http://www.geographypods.com/7-leisure-at-local-scale-sport.html Accessed 10th November 2017. Suggest reasons why the sphere of influence varies for the following features [2 per feature]: Look up the city on Google Maps or a similar maps application. Retailing is the activity of selling goods or services to buyers for personal, family or household use. At the same time, the fewer of that type of settlement, the higher it appears. Building sustainable urban systems for the future, Is this a good page? (A TOK-able moment), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Urban-rural_typology, http://www.geographypods.com/7-leisure-at-local-scale-sport.html, http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/full/ch3/ch3_text.htm#c9, https://nextcity.org/daily/entry/family-grocers-gamble-on-downtown-cleveland, New article: urban deprivation in Nairobi. Geographypods, 2017. Tourism and sport at the international scale, Tourism as a national development strategy, Case study: Kenya’s national tourism strategy, Unsustainable tourism and carrying capacity, Sustainable management of tourism hotspots, Features of the Central Business District, Economic activity in the Central Business District, Urban poverty, deprivation and informal activity, Case study: Urban problems in New York City, Case study: Urban problems in Nairobi, Kenya, Case study of infrastructure growth: Hong Kong introduction, Case study of transport infrastructure: Hong Kong, Case study of telecommunications infrastructure: Hong Kong, Case study of energy infrastructure: Hong Kong, Case study of water supply and sanitation infrastructure: Hong Kong, 3. Urban-rural typology http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Urban-rural_typology Accessed 7th November 2017. Weather vs Climate and why is it important? In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity. Open the doc below and form teams to discuss and complete the table. Give concrete examples of this. What is the difference between local leisure resources and facilities which serve the entire city and its surrounds? HKPD [Hong Kong Planning Department], 2014. (The sphere of influence is shown by dotted lines.) 6. Where in a city would you expect to find these lower order services? The media condemns Russian President Vladimir Putin as a human rights violator who did not return an American defector. The Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union are not re-emerging, but a more traditional, soft sphere of influence based on historical Russian geography and empire building is. Im doing a essay for A-level on the sphere of influence on East Croydon train station (south London Surrey) Any help as to how to measure the sphere, what the sphere is, why is the sphere on East Croydon so big, how to gather and present data that kind of thing. Why would people be either willing or unwilling to travel a long way to reach this place. Learn more. Oxford University Press, USA. Assuming you are meaning what does sphere of influence mean in geography. Intra-urban: Urban means a settlement of over 10,000 people, intra means within. sphere of influence - the geographical area in which one nation is very influential sphere geographic area , geographic region , geographical area , geographical region - a demarcated area of the Earth Using travel time and connect to origin tools to investigate sphere of influence. Explain why some facilities that require a large land area, such as a football ground or a park, are found near the centre of the city. Now discuss how leisure hierarchies might exist within a city. Some estimates for leisure facilities are shown in the table below (Nagle and Cooke, 2017). From http://www.bbc.co.uk The sphere of influence of a shop is how far people will be prepared to go to make use of that shop. Why is this the case? © Matthew Burdett, 2018. The larger the facility, the more land it uses. (HKPD, 2014), USA retail: grocery stores require between 20000 and 25000 people (Stephens, 2015), EU definitions of urban: 300 people per km² and 5000 people in total (Eurostat, 2017), Functions of nearby facilities – if nearby facilities do the same thing, then they will have a smaller sphere of influence as they share the population, Competition with other facilities – if a nearby facility is better at providing a service, that facility will have a larger sphere of influence. people will only come to it from nearby. The bigger the settlement, the higher it is towards the top. For example a place like London attracts customers on a multinational level where as a local high street is likely to have a far smaller sphere of influence. A sphere of influence is an area which depends on a given urban area for a particular good or service. Sheffield City Council, 2011. ZIMSEC O Level Geography Notes: Settlements:Factors that affect the Spheres of influence. This means they attract people from a wider area because of the facilities they offer. Grocery Store Chain Gambles on Downtown Cleveland https://nextcity.org/daily/entry/family-grocers-gamble-on-downtown-cleveland Accessed 7th November 2017. In practice, there may well be some overlap, as individual people make decisions based on a variety of factors other than distance. We also see how the sphere of influence varies between urban and rural areas, with reference to the intra-urban hierarchy. The sphere of influence can be shown in a typical map. However, the geology and geography of an area or country can greatly influence the vegetation, climate, precipitation, and other matters that in turn can influence the population living in that area. noun, plural spheres of influence. The image below shows how smaller places have a smaller sphere of influence. A country's sphere of influence is an area of the world where it has a lot of influence. Note how the central area’s sphere of influence is so large you can only see a small section of the bigger circle. The media is, by and large, absent regarding this story. ADVERTISEMENTS: The urban sphere of influence can be defined as the geographical region which surrounds a city and maintains inflow-outflow relationship with the city. A hierarchy is when a phenomenon is placed in an order using grades or classes placed in sequence (Mayhew, 2015). If it is a large event, it may have a sphere of influence that extends around the globe. A larger settlement will attract people from further away than a smaller settlement. Importance: The more important sporting facilities such as national stadia go towards the top, while the less important such as recreational football pitches go to the bottom. http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/full/ch3/ch3_text.htm#c9 Accessed 7th November 2017. Cities such as Paris have a global sphere of influence, whereas a small hamlet or village may only have a sphere of influence of a couple of kilometres. Products and services can also be used to determine a settlement’s sphere of influence for example a product that is only produced in a given settlement increases that settlement’s sphere of influence. When looking at leisure facilities and how they are spread across different sizes of urban settlement, we can usually identify that facilities are part of ‘nested hierarchy’ in which each stage of the hierarchy includes the level(s) below. The smaller the threshold population, the smaller the sphere of influence. In general, leisure facilities are concentrated in the central urban area. , Explain what is meant by ‘threshold population’. Geography: Course Companion. Some leisure activities don’t make much money (such as athletics grounds), so they can’t afford the land in the middle of the city and they have to go to the outskirts. To understand the sphere of influence of a facility, it is important to recognise several related key terms including hierarchy, range and threshold population. In practical terms it is the limit of the sphere of influence. Therefore, intra-urban means within an urban area. This is known as a global sphere of influence. Eurostat, 2017. For example, if a local gym does not have a pool, a gym further away might be more attractive to people and therefore have a larger sphere of influence, Characteristics of local population (including affluence) – in some places, identical services may have a smaller sphere of influence due to the difficulties of accessibility, Describe the types of facility found at different levels of the leisure hierarchy. Sphere of influence "The sphere of influence is the area surrounding a settlement that is affected by the settlement's activities." Impacts of changing trends in resource consumption, Multidimensional development and the SDGs, Patterns and trends in leisure and tourism, Leisure hierarchy and sphere of influence, 3. To understand the sphere of influence of a facility, it is important to recognise several related key terms including hierarchy, range and threshold population. sphere of influence (Geography)? Governments and commercial organisations generally have guidelines that suggest a minimum number of people for any given facility. Suggest reasons why the distribution of the facility does or does not follow the expected pattern of the intra-urban leisure hierarchy. In geography, the most common feature that is organised in a hierarchy is settlement. Sphere of influence, in international politics, the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory. The concept of sphere of influence concerns the domain, or the areas of our careers, in which one can effectively exert influence. South Yorkshire Residential Design Guide. The leisure hierarchy has a strong correlation with settlement hierarchy. Every urban centre, irrespective of the size and the nature of function, has a region of influence. It describes where the customers at a particular retail location are from, and explains why they attend that location instead of a neighbouring location. For example, most major sports stadia have public transport hubs adjacent to them, such as railway stations. There are some facilities near the city centre that take up large amounts of space, which were planned in the early development of the modern city when it was difficult to travel outside of the city for open space. Nagle, G., and Cooke, B., 2017. In the UK, local government is responsible for ensuring that facilities are placed within easy reach of local people. Any given location will tend to have a greater number of smaller settlements (villages and small towns) and a smaller number of large urban centres. Its sphere of influence for different functions may cover vastly different areas. What causes wind and how do we measure it? Sometimes this is also called the ‘catchment area’. Why? For instance a supermarket may attract people from a 20-mile radius, whilst a leisure activity, such as going to the theatre may attract them from far further away. Choose three contrasting leisure or tourist facilities from those below: Volcanoes - what are they?